Curtis Suttle


FRSC, Distinguished University Scholar

Biodiversity 346
(604) 822-8610

Research in the Suttle laboratory is primarily focussed on viruses and their role in the environment. The work ranges from the characterization of viruses isolated from the environment to quatifiying the role of viruses in microbial mortality and nutrient cycling. The techniques employed range from nucleic-acid sequencing to oceanographic sampling. Some current projects are examining viruses and their roles in the oceans, high Arctic, deep mines, aeolian dust, lakes and migratory-bird ponds. Please check out the lab web page for more information on activities, people and publications.



Projects dealing primarily with algae/algal viruses and cyanobacteria/cyanophage:

Projects dealing primarily with heterotrophic bacteria/bacteriophage:

Graduate Students

PhD Oceanography
PhD Oceanography
PhD Oceanography

Post-Doctoral Fellows:

  • Jan Finke
    Gideon Mordecai
    Kevin Zhong

Graduate Students:

  • Ezra Kitson     MSc Microbiology
  • Jessica Caleta  MSc Microbiology
  • Tianyi Chang  PhD Oceanography
  • Anna Cho        MSc Microbiology
  • Christoph Deeg           PhD Microbiology
  • Marli Vlok      PhD Botany

Undergraduate Students:

  • Christina Charlesworth

Emeritus Graduate Students:

  • Jan Finke (Ph.D. Oceanography)
  • Richard White (PhD Microbiology)
  • Jérôme Payet (Ph.D. Oceanography)
  • Matthias Fischer (Ph.D. Microbiology)
  • Caroline Chénard (Ph.D. Oceanography)
  • Jessica Labonté (Ph.D. Microbiology)
  • Alvin Tian (M. Sc. Bioinformatics)
  • Masoud Namini (MEng Environ Engineer)
  • Emma Shelford (Ph. D. Oceanography)
  • Julia Gustavson (Ph. D. Oceanography)
  • Sean Brigden (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Feng Chen (Ph. D. Marine Science)
  • Jessie Clasen (Ph. D. Oceanography)
  • Matt Cottrell (Ph. D. Marine Science)
  • André Comeau (Ph. D. Microbiology)
  • Alex Culley (Ph. D. Botany)
  • Helen Drost (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Cindy Frederickson (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Randy Garza (MSc Marine Science)
  • Nicole McLearn (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Alice Ortmann (Ph. D. Oceanography)
  • Karen Reid (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Kristen Rodda (MSc Marine Science)
  • Steven Short (Ph.D. Botany)
  • Tanya St. John (M.Sc. Oceanography)
  • Vera Tai (M.Sc. Botany)

Emeritus Post-Doctoral Fellows:

  • Cheryl Chow
  • Jennifer Wirth
  • Renat Adelshin
  • Danielle Winget
  • Azeem Ahmad
  • Hudson DeYoe
  • Emma Hambly
  • Janice Lawrence
  • Clemens Pausz
  • Marku Weinbauer
  • Steven Wilhelm


(a) Journals

  1. Qiang, Z., Y. Wang, R. Xie, A.S. Lang, Yanting Liu, Jiayao Lu, Xiaodong Zhang, Jun Sun, C.A. Suttle, and Nianzhi Jiao Dynamics of heterotrophic bacterial assemblages within Synechococcus cultures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology doi: /10.1128/AEM.01517-17 (accepted 2 November 2017)
  2. Batanero, G.L., E. León-Palmero, L. Li, A.J. Green, M. Rendón-Martos, C. A. Suttle and I. Reche. 2017. Flamingos and drought as drivers of nutrients and microbial dynamics in a saline lake. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 12173. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-12462-9 (13 pages)
  3. Hawley, A., M. Torres Beltran, E. Zaikova, D. Walsh, A. Mueller, M. Scofield, S. Kheirandish, C. Payne, L. Pakhomova, M. Bhatia, O. Shevchuk, E. Gies, D. Fairley, S. Malfatti, A. Norbeck, H. Brewer, L. Pasa-Tolic, T.G. del Rio, C.A. Suttle, S. Tringe, and S. Hallam. 2017. A compendium of multi-omic sequence information from the Saanich Inlet water column. Scientific Data 4, Article number: 170160 doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.160 (21 pages)
  4. Xiao, C., M.G. Fischer, D.M. Bolotaulo, N. Ulloa-Rondeau, G.A. Avila and C.A Suttle. 2017. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the Cafeteria roenbergensis virus capsid suggests novel assembly pathway for giant viruses. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 5484. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05824-w (7 pages)
  5. Torres Beltran, M., A. Hawley, D. Capelle, E. Zaikova, D. Walsh, A. Mueller, M. Scofield, C. Payne, L. Pakhomova, S. Kheirandish, J. Finke, M. Bhatia, O. Shevchuk, E. Gies, D. Fairley, C. Michiels, C.A. Suttle, F. Whitney, S. Crowe, P. Tortell, and S. Hallam. 2017. A compendium of geochemical information from the Saanich Inlet water column. Scientific Data 4, Article number: 170159 doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.159 (22 pages)
  6. Finke, J.F., B.P.V. Hunt, C. Winter , E.C. Carmack and C.A Suttle. 2017. Nutrients and other environmental factors influence virus abundances across oxic and hypoxic marine environments. Viruses 9(6), 152. doi:10.3390/v9060152 (17 pages)
  7. Finke, J.F., D.M. Winget, A.M. Chan and C.A Suttle. 2017. Variation in the genetic repertoire of viruses infecting Micromonas pusilla reflects horizontal gene transfer and links to their environmental distribution. Viruses 9(5), 116. doi: 10.3390/v9050116 (18 pages)
  8. Simmonds, P., M.J. Adams, M. Benkő, M. Breitbart, J.R. Brister, E.B. Carstens, A.J. Davison, E. Delwart, A.E. Gorbalenya, B. Harrach, R. Hull, A.M.Q. King, E.V. Koonin, M. Krupovic, J.H. Kuhn, E.J. Lefkowitz, M.L. Nibert, R. Orton, M.J. Roossinck, S. Sabanadzovic, M.B. Sullivan, C.A. Suttle, R.B. Tesh, R.A. van der Vlugt, A. Varsani, F.M. Zerbin. 2017. Virus taxonomy in the age of metagenomics. Nature Reviews Microbiology 15:161–168. doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.177  (top 1% of papers on Altmetrics)
  9. Chénard, C., J.F. Wirth and C.A. Suttle. 2016. Viruses infecting a freshwater filamentous cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) encode DNA polymerase B from a proteobacterium and a functional CRISPR array. mBio 7(3):e00667-16. doi:10.1128/mBio.00667-16 (11 pages) (top 5% of papers on Altmetrics)
  10. Uyaguari-Diaz, M.I., M. Chan, B. Chabin, M. Croxen, J.F. Finke, J.E. Hill, M.A. Peabody, T. Van Rossum, C.A. Suttle, F.S.L. Brinkman, J. Issac-Renton, N.A. Prystajecky and P.K.C. Tang. 2016. A comprehensive method for amplicon-based and metagenomic characterization of viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes in freshwater samples. Microbiome 4:20; doi:10.1186/s40168-016-0166-1 (19 pages)
  11. White, R.A. III, A.M. Chan, G.S. Gavelis, B.S. Leander, A.L. Brady, G.F. Slater, D.S. Lim and C.A. Suttle. 2016. Metagenomic analysis suggests modern freshwater microbialites harbor a core and distinct microbial community. Frontiers in Microbiology 6:1531; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01531 (14 pages)
  12. Wigington, C., D. Sonderegger, C.P.D. Brussaard, A. Buchan, J.F. Finke, J.A. Fuhrman, J. Lennon, M. Middelboe, C.A. Suttle, C. Stock, W.H. Wilson, K.E. Wommack, S.W. Wilhelm, and J.S. Weitz. 2016. Re-examining the relationship between marine virus and microbial cell abundances. Nature Microbiology 1: Article 15024;  doi: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2015.24 (8 pages)
  13. Van Rossum, T., M.A. Peabody, M.I. Uyaguari-Diaz, K.I. Cronin, C.A. Suttle, W.W.L. Hsiao, P.K.C. Tang, N.A. Prystajecky, and F.S.L. Brinkman. 2015. Year-long metagenomic study of river microbiomes across land use and water quality.  Frontiers in Microbiology 6:1405; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01405 (15 pages)
  14. Chow, C.E.T. and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Biogeography of viruses in the sea. Annual Reviews of Virology 2:41-66; doi: 10.1146/annurev-virology-031413-085540
  15. Gavelis, G.S., S. Hayakawa, R.A. White III, T. Gojobori, C.A. Suttle, P.J. Keeling and B.S. Leander. 2015. Eyelike ocelloids are built from different endosymbiotically acquired components. Nature 523:204–207; doi: 10.1038/nature14593
  16. White, R.A. III, I.M. Power, G.M. Dipple, G. Southam and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential. Frontiers in Microbiology 6:966; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00966 (14 pages)
  17. Gavelis, G.S., R.A. White III, C.A. Suttle, P.J. Keeling and B.S. Leander. 2015. Investigating the origin of plastids in Polykrikos lebourae (Dinoflagellata) using single-cell genomics and single-cell transcriptomics. BMC Genomics :528; doi: 10.1186/s12864-015-1636-8 (9 pages)
  18. Labonté, J.M., S.J. Hallam and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Previously unknown evolutionary groups dominate the ssDNA gokushoviruses in oxic and anoxic waters of a coastal marine environment. Frontiers in Microbiology 6:315; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00315 (10 pages)
  19. Chénard, C., A.M. Chan, W.F. Vincent and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Polar freshwater cyanophage S-EIV1 represents a new evolutionary lineage of phages that are widespread and abundant. ISME Journal 2046–2058; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2015.24
  20. Chow, C.E.T., D.M. Winget, R.A. White III, , S.J. Hallam  and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Combining genomic sequencing methods to reveals patterns of viral diversity and potential virus- host interactions. Frontiers in Microbiology 6:265; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00265 (15 pages)
  21. Wood-Charlson, E.M., K.D. Weynberg, C.A. Suttle, S. Roux and M.J.H. van Oppen. 2015. Metagenomic characterisation of viral communities in corals: Mining biological signal from methodological noise. Environmental Microbiology 17:3440–3449;  doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12803             
  22. Weitz, J.S., C.A. Stock, S.W. Wilhelm , L. Bourouiba, A. Buchan, M.L. Coleman, M.J. Follows, J.A. Fuhrman, L.F. Jover, J.T. Lennon, M. Middelboe, D.L. Sonderegger, C.A. Suttle, B.P. Taylor, T.F. Thingstad , W.H. Wilson and K.E. Wommack. 2015. A multitrophic model to quantify the effects of marine viruses on microbial food webs and ecosystem processes. ISME Journal 9: 1352-1364; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.220
  23. Gustavsen, J.A., D.M. Winget, X. Tian and C.A. Suttle. 2014. High temporal and spatial diversity in marine RNA viruses (Picornavirales) revealed by high-throughput sequencing implies an important role in mortality and structuring of plankton communities. Frontiers in Microbiology 5:703; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00703 (13 pages)
  24. Shelford, E.J., N.O.G. Jørgensen, S. Rasmussen, C.A. Suttle and M. Middelboe. 2014. Dissecting the role of viruses in marine nutrient cycling: bacterial uptake of D- and L- amino acids released by viral lysis. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 73:235-243; doi: 10.3354/ame01720
  25. Fischer, M.G., I. Kelly, L.J. Foster and C.A. Suttle. 2014. The virion of Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV) contains a complex suite of proteins for transcription and DNA repair. Virology 466-467:82-94; doi:10.1016/j.virol.2014.05.029
  26. Weynberg, K.D., E.M. Wood-Charlson, C.A. Suttle and M.J.H. van Oppen. 2014. Generating viral metagenomes from the coral holobiont. Frontiers in Microbiology 5:206; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00206 (11 pages)
  27. Payet, J.P. and C.A. Suttle. 2014. Viral infection of bacteria and phytoplankton in the Arctic Ocean as viewed through the lens of fingerprint analysis. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 72:47-61; doi: 10.3354/ame01684
  28. Labonté, J.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2013. gokushoviruses and biogeographic separation in the sea. Frontiers in Microbiology 4:404; doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00404 (11 pages)
  29. Zheng, Q., N. Jiao, R. Zhang, F. Chen and C.A. Suttle. 2013. Prevalence of psbA-containing cyanobacterial podoviruses in the ocean. Scientific Reports 3(3207); doi: 10.1038/srep03207 (4 pages)
  30. Labonté, J.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2013. Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses populate the oceans. ISME Journal 2169–2177; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2013.110
  31. Winter, C., B. Mathews and C.A. Suttle. 2013. Effects of environmental variation and spatial distance on Bacteria, Archaea, and viruses in sub-polar and arctic waters. ISME Journal 1507–1518; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2013.56.
  32. Payet, J.P. and C.A. Suttle. 2013. To kill or not to kill: The balance between lytic and lysogenic viral infection is driven by trophic status. Limnology and Oceanography 58:465-474; doi: 10.4319/lo.2013.58.2.0465
  33. Declerck, S.A.J., C. Winter, J.B. Shurin, C.A. Suttle and B. Matthews. 2013. Effects of patch connectivity and heterogeneity on metacommunity structure of planktonic bacteria and viruses. ISME Journal 7:533-542; doi: 10.1038/ismej.2012.138
  34. Suttle, C.A. 2013. Viruses: unlocking the greatest biodiversity on Earth. Genome 56:542-544; doi: 10.1139/gen-2013-0152
  35. Winter, C., J.P. Payet and C.A. Suttle. 2012. Modeling the Winter-to-Summer transition of prokaryotic and viral abundance in the Arctic Ocean. PLoS ONE 7 (12), e52794 (14 pages)
  36. Shelford, E.J., M. Middelboe, E.F. Møller and C.A. Suttle. 2012. Virus-driven nitrogen cycling enhances phytoplankton growth. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 66:41-46
  37. Gimenes, M.V., P.M.A. Zanotto, C.A. Suttle, H.B. da Cunha and D.U. Mehnert. 2012. Phylodynamics and movement of Phycodnaviruses among aquatic environments. ISME Journal 6:237-247
  38. *Fischer, M.G. and C.A. Suttle. 2011. A Virophage at the origin of large DNA transposons. Science 332:231-234
  39. Goldsmith, D.B., G. Crosti, B. Dwivedi, L.D. McDaniel, A. Varsani, C.A. Suttle, M.G. Weinbauer, R.-A. Sandaa and M. Breitbart. 2011. Pho regulon genes in phage: Development of phoH as a novel signature gene for assessing marine phage diversity. Applied Environmental Microbiology
  40. Matthews, B., S. Hausch, C. Winter, C.A. Suttle and J.B. Shurin. 2011. Contrasting ecosystem effects of morphologically similar copepods. PLoS ONE 6(11): e26700 (10 pages)
  41. Veillette, J., C. Lovejoy, M. Potvin, T. Harding, A.G. Jungblut, D. Antoniades, C. Chénard, C.A. Suttle and W.F. Vincent. 2011. Milne Fiord epishelf lake: a coastal arctic ecosystem vulnerable to climate change. Ecoscience 18:304-316
  42. Weinbauer, M.G., O. Bonilla-Findji, A.M. Chan, M. Agis, J.R. Dolan, S.M. Short, K. Šimek, S.W. Wilhelm, and C.A. Suttle. 2011. Synechococcus growth in the ocean may depend on the lysis of heterotrophic bacteria. Journal of Plankton Research 33:1465-1476
  43. Danovaro, R., C. Corinaldesi, A. Dell’Anno, J.A. Fuhrman, J.J. Middelburg, R.T. Noble and C.A. Suttle. 2011. Marine viruses and global climate change, FEMS Microbiology Reviews 35:993-1034
  44. Moore, R.A., R.L. Warren, J.D. Freeman, J.A. Gustavsen, C. Chénard, J.M. Friedman, C.A. Suttle, Y. Zhao, and R.A. Holt. 2011. The sensitivity of massively parallel sequencing for detecting candidate infectious agents associated with human tissue. PLoS ONE 6(5) p. e19838 (6 pages)
  45. *Fischer, M.G., M.J. Allen, W.H. Wilson and C.A. Suttle. 2010. A giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:
  46. Labonté, J., K.E. Reid and C.A. Suttle. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis indicates evolutionary diversity and environmental segregation of marine podovirus DNA polymerase gene sequences. Applied Environmental Microbiology
  47. Clasen J.L. and C.A. Suttle. 2009. Identifying freshwater Phycodnaviridae and their potential phytoplankton hosts using DNA pol sequence fragments and a genetic distance analysis. Applied Environmental Microbiology
  48. Vincent, W.F., L.G. Whyte, C. Lovejoy, C.W. Greer, I. Laurion, C.A. Suttle, J. Corbeil and D.R. Mueller. 2009. Arctic microbial ecosystems and impacts of extreme warming during the International Polar Year. Polar Science 3:171-180
  49. Chénard C. and C.A. Suttle. 2008. Phylogenetic diversity of cyanophage photosynthetic genes (psbA) in marine and fresh waters. Applied Environmental Microbiology
  50. Payet, J.P. and C.A. Suttle. 2008. Physical and biological correlates of virus dynamics in the southern Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf. Journal of Marine Systems 74:933-945
  51. Brussaard C.P.D, S.W. Wilhelm, T.F. Thingstad, M.G. Weinbauer, G. Bratbak, M. Heldal, S.A. Kimmance, M. Middelboe, K. Nagasaki, J.H. Paul, D.C. Schroeder, C.A. Suttle, D. Vaqué and K.E. Wommack 2008. Global-scale processes with a nanoscale drive: the role of marine viruses. ISME Journal 575–578
  52. Clasen, J.L., S.M. Brigden, J.P. Payet and C.A. Suttle. 2008. Viral abundance across marine and freshwater systems is driven by different biological factors. Freshwater Biology 53:1090-1100
  53. *Suttle C.A 2007. Marine viruses – major players in the global ecosystem. Nature Reviews Microbiology 5:801-812 (As of September/October 2014, this highly cited paper received enough citations to place it in the top 1% of the academic field of Microbiology based on a highly cited threshold for the field and publication year)
  54. Cully A.I., A.S. Lang and C.A. Suttle. 2007. The complete genomes of three viruses assembled from shotgun libraries of marine RNA virus communities. Virology Journal 4:69 (doi:10.1186/1743-422X-4-69)
  55. Breitbart M., L.R. Thompson, C.A. Suttle and M.B. Sullivan. 2007. Exploring the vast diversity of marine viruses. Oceanography. 20:135-139
  56. Comeau, A.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2007. of Vibrio spp. from coastal British Columbia. Environmental Microbiology 9:1790-1800
  57. *Culley A.I., A.S. Lang and . 2006. Metagenomic analysis of coastal RNA virus communities. Science 312:1795-1798
  58. Angly F.E., B. Felts, M. Breitbart, P. Salamon, R.A. Edwards, C. Carlson, A.M. Chan, M. Haynes, S. Kelley, H. Liu, J.M. Mahaffy, J.E. Mueller, J. Nulton, R. Olson, R. Parsons, S. Rayhawk, C.A. Suttle, F. Rohwer. 2006. The marine viromes of four oceanic regions. 4(11):e368 (Highly cited: As of September/October 2014, this highly cited paper received enough citations to place it in the top 1% of the academic field of Biology & Biochemistry based on a highly cited threshold for the field and publication year – Thomson Reuters, Essential Science Indicators)
  59. Lawrence J.E., C.P.D. Brussaard, and . 2006. Virus-specific responses of Heterosigma akashiwo to infection. Applied Environmental Microbiology 72:7829-7834
  60. Comeau, A.M., A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 2006. . Environmental Microbiology 8:1164-1176
  61. Filée J., F. Tétart, C.A. Suttle and H.M. Krisch.. 2006. W-type bacteriophages: ubiquitous components of the "dark matter" of the biosphere. M S-Medecine Sciences 22:111-112
  62. *Suttle, C.A. 2005. Viruses in the sea. Nature 437:356-361 (As of September/October 2014, this highly cited paper received enough citations to place it in the top 1% of the academic field of Environment/Ecology based on a highly cited threshold for the field and publication year)
  63. *Filée J., F. Tétart, C.A. Suttle and H.M. Krisch. 2005. Marine T4-type bacteriophages, a ubiquitous component of the dark matter of the biosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102:12471-12476
  64. Comeau, A.M., E. Buenaventura and C.A. Suttle. 2005. A Persistent, productive and seasonally dynamic vibriophage population within Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71:5324-5331
  65. Hambly, E. and C.A. Suttle. 2005. The viriosphere, diversity, and genetic exchange within phage communities. Current Opinion in Microbiology 8:444-450
  66. Ortmann, A.C. and C.A. Suttle. 2005. High abundances of viruses in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent system indicates viral mediated microbial mortality. Deep Sea Research 52:1515-1527
  67. Short, C.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2005. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71:480-486
  68. Daughney C.J., Chatellier X., Chan A.M., Kenward P., Fortin D., Suttle C.A., Fowle D.A.. 2004. Adsorption and precipitation of iron from seawater on a marine bacteriophage (PWH3A-P1). Marine Chemistry 91:101-115
  69. Wen, K., A.C. Ortmann and C.A. Suttle. 2004. Accurate estimates of viral abundance by epifluorescence microscopy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70:3862-3867
  70. Brussaard, C.P.D., S.M. Short, C.M. Frederickson and C.A. Suttle. 2004. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of novel viruses infecting the phytoplankter Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70:3700-37054
  71. Lawrence, J.E. and C.A. Suttle. 2004. The effect of viral infection on sinking rates of Heterosigma akashiwo and its implications for bloom termination Aquatic Microbial Ecology 37:1-7
  72. Comeau, A.M., S.M. Short and C.A. Suttle. 2004. The use of degenerate-primed random amplification of polymorphic DNA (DP-RAPD) for strain-typing and inferring the genetic similarity among closely related viruses. Journal of Virological Methods 118:95-100
  73. Lang, A.S., A.I. Culley and C.A. Suttle. 2003. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of a marine picorna-like virus, HaRNAV, that infects the toxic bloom-forming alga Heterosigma akashiwo. Virology 320:206-217
  74. Frederickson, C.M., S.M. Short and C.A. Suttle. 2003. The physical environment affects cyanophage communities in British Columbia inlets. Microbial Ecology 46:348-357
  75. Culley, A.I., A.S. Lang and C.A. Suttle. 2003. High diversity of unknown picorna-like viruses in the sea. Nature 424:1054-1057
  76. Short, S.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2003. Temporal dynamics of natural communities of marine algal viruses and eukaryotes. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 32:107-119
  77. Hardies, S.C., A.M. Comeau, P. Serwer and C.A. Suttle. 2003. The complete sequence of marine bacteriophage VpV262 infecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus indicates that an ancestral component of a T7 viral supergroup is widespread in the marine environment. Virology 310:359-371
  78. Tai, V., J.E. Lawrence, A.S. Lang, A.E. Culley, A.M. Chan, C.A. Suttle. 2003. Characterization of HaRNAV, a single-stranded RNA virus causing lysis of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae). Journal of Phycology 39:343-352
  79. Juneau, P., J.E. Lawrence, C.A. Suttle and P.J. Harrison. 2003. Effects of viral infection on photosynthetic processes in the bloom-forming alga Heterosigma akashiwo. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 31:9-17
  80. Nielsen, C.B. D. Cooper, S.M. Short, J.H. Myers, C.A. Suttle. 2002. DNA polymerase gene sequences indicate western and forest tent caterpillar viruses form a new taxonomic group within baculoviruses. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 81:131-147
  81. Wilhelm, S.W., W.H. Jeffrey, C.A. Suttle, D.L. Mitchell. 2002. Estimation of biologically damaging UV levels in marine surface waters with DNA and viral dosimeters. Photochemistry and Photobiology 76:268 - 273
  82. Ortmann, A.C., J.E. Lawrence and C.A. Suttle. 2002. Lytic viral production and lysogeny in heterotrophic bacterial and cyanobacterial communities. Microbial Ecology 43:225-231
  83. Lawrence, J.E., A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 2002. Viruses causing lysis of the toxic bloom-forming alga, Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae), are widespread in coastal sediments of British Columbia, Canada. Limnology and Oceanography 47:545-550
  84. Short, S.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2002. Sequence analysis of marine virus communities reveals groups of related algal viruses are widely distributed in nature Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68:1290-1296
  85. Wilhelm, S.W., S.M. Brigden and C.A. Suttle. 2002. Direct measurements of viral production in stratified and tidally mixed waters in the Strait of Georgia. Microbial Ecology 43:168-173
  86. Lawrence, J.E., A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 2001. Characterization of a novel virus causing the lysis of the toxic bloom-forming alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Journal of Phycology 37:216-222
  87. Short, S.M. and C.A. Suttle 2000. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis resolves virus sequences amplified with degenerate primers. BioTechniques 28:20-26
  88. Wilhelm, S.W. and C.A. Suttle. 1999. Microbes, viruses, and nutrient cycles in the sea. Bioscience 49:781-788 (among most highly cited articles in BioScience: 1 March 2015.
  89. Short, S.M. and C.A. Suttle. 1999. Use of the polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to study diversity in natural virus communities. Hydrobiologia 401:19-33
  90. Suttle, C.A. 1999. Do viruses control the oceans? Natural History 108:48-51
  91. Weinbauer, M.G. and C.A. Suttle. 1999. Lysogeny and prophage induction in coastal and offshore bacterial communities. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 18:217-225
  92. Weinbauer, M.G., S.W. Wilhelm, C.A. Suttle, R. Pledger, and D.L. Mitchell. 1999. Sunlight-induced DNA damage and resistance in natural virus communities. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 17:111-120
  93. Garza, D.R. and C.A. Suttle. 1998. The effect of cyanophages on the mortality of Synechococcus spp. and selection for UV resistant viral communities Microbial Ecology 36:281-292
  94. Kepner, R.L., R.A. Wharton and C.A. Suttle. 1998. Abundant viruses in Antarctic lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 43:1754-1761
  95. Wilhelm, S.W., M.G. Weinbauer, C.A. Suttle and W.H. Jeffrey. 1998. The role of sunlight in the removal and repair of viruses in the sea. Limnology and Oceanography 43:586-592
  96. Wilhelm, S.W., M.G. Weinbauer, C.A. Suttle, R.J. Pledger and D.L. Mitchell. 1998. Measurements of DNA damage and photoreactivation imply that most viruses in marine surface waters are infective. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 14:215-222
  97. DePaola, A., M.L. Motes, A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 1998. Phages infecting Vibrio vulnificus are abundant and diverse in oysters collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64:346-351
  98. DeYoe, H.R., D.A. Stockwell, R.R. Bidigare, M. Latasa, P.W. Johnson, P.E. Hargraves and C.A. Suttle. 1997. Description and characterization of the algal species Aureoumbra lagunensis gen. et sp. nov. and referral of Aureoumbra and Aureococcus to the Pelagophyceae. Journal of Phycology 33:1042-1048
  99. Weinbauer, M.G. and C.A. Suttle. 1997. Comparison of epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy for counting viruses in natural marine waters. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 13:225-232
  100. Weinbauer, M.G., S.W. Wilhelm, C.A. Suttle and D.R. Garza. 1997. Photoreactivation compensates for UV damage and restores infectivity to natural marine viral communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63:2200-2205
  101. Weinbauer, M.G. and C.A. Suttle. 1996. Potential significance of lysogeny to bacteriophage production and bacterial mortality in coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62:4374-4380
  102. Chen, F., C.A. Suttle and S.M. Short. 1996. Genetic diversity in marine algal virus communities as revealed by sequence analysis of DNA polymerase genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62:2869-2874
  103. Chen, F. and C.A. Suttle. 1996. Evolutionary relationships among large double-stranded DNA viruses that infect microalgae and other organisms as inferred from DNA polymerase genes. Virology 219:170-178
  104. Garza, D.R. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Large double-stranded DNA viruses which cause the lysis of marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates (Bodo sp.) occur in natural marine virus communities. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 9:203-210
  105. Hennes, K.P., A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Fluorescently labeled virus probes show that natural virus populations can control the structure of marine microbial communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:3623-3627
  106. Cottrell, M.T. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Genetic diversity of algal viruses which lyse the photosynthetic picoflagellate Micromonas pusilla (Prasinophyceae). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:3088-3091
  107. Hennes, K.P. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Direct counts of viruses in natural waters and laboratory cultures by epifluorescence microscopy. Limnology and Oceanography 40:1050-1055
  108. Chen, F. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Nested PCR with three highly degenerate primers for amplification and identification of DNA from related organisms. BioTechniques 18:609-611
  109. Chen, F. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Amplification of DNA polymerase gene fragments from viruses infecting microalgae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:1274-1278
  110. Cottrell, M.T. and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Dynamics of a lytic virus infecting the photosynthetic marine picoflagellate, Micromonas pusilla. Limnology and Oceanography 40:730-739
  111. DeYoe, H.R., A.M. Chan and C.A. Suttle. 1995. Phylogeny of Aureococcus anophagefferens and a morphologically similar bloom-forming alga from Texas as determined by 18S rDNA sequence analysis. Journal of Phycology 31:413-418
  112. Suttle, C.A. and A.M. Chan. 1995. Viruses infecting the marine prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina spp.: isolation, preliminary characterization and natural abundance. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118:275-282
  113. Suttle, C.A. 1994. The significance of viruses to mortality in aquatic microbial communities. Microbial Ecology 28:237-243
  114. Suttle, C.A. and A.M. Chan. 1994. Dynamics and distribution of cyanophages and their effect on marine Synechococcus spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60:3167-3174
  115. DeYoe, H.D. and C.A. Suttle. 1994. The inability of the Texas "Brown Tide" alga to use nitrate and the role of nitrogen in the initiation of a persistent bloom of this organism. Journal of Phycology 30:800-806
  116. Fuhrman, J.A. and C.A. Suttle. 1993. Viruses in marine planktonic systems. Oceanography 6:50-62
  117. Cottrell, M.T. and C.A. Suttle. 1993. Production of axenic cultures of Micromonas pusilla (Prasinophyceae) using treatments with antibiotics. Journal of Phycology 29:385-387
  118. González, J.M. and C.A. Suttle. 1993. Grazing by marine nanoflagellates on viruses and virus-sized particles: ingestion and digestion. Marine Ecology Progress Series 94:1-10
  119. Suttle, C.A. and A.M. Chan. 1993. Marine cyanophages infecting oceanic and coastal strains of Synechococcus: abundance, morphology, cross-infectivity and growth characteristics. Marine Ecology Progress Series 92:99-109
  120. Suttle, C.A. 1992. Inhibition of photosynthesis by the submicron size fraction concentrated from seawater. Marine Ecology Progress Series 87:105-112
  121. Suttle, C.A. and F. Chen. 1992. Mechanisms and rates of decay of marine viruses in seawater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58:3721-3729
  122. Cottrell, M.T. and C.A. Suttle. 1991. Wide-spread occurrence and clonal variation in viruses which cause lysis of a cosmopolitan, eukaryotic marine phytoplankter Micromonas pusilla. Marine Ecology Progress Series 78:1-9
  123. Suttle, C.A., W.P. Cochlan and J.G. Stockner. 1991. Size-dependent ammonium and phosphate uptake, and N:P supply ratios in an oligotrophic lake. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48:1226-1234
  124. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan and M.T. Cottrell. 1991. Use of ultrafiltration to isolate viruses from seawater which are pathogens to marine phytoplankton. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 57:721-726
  125. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan and J.A. Fuhrman. 1991. Dissolved free amino acids in the Sargasso Sea: Uptake and respiration rates, turnover times and concentrations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 70:189-199
  126. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan, and M.T. Cottrell. 1990. Infection of phytoplankton by viruses and reduction of primary productivity. Nature 347:467-469
  127. Suttle, C.A., J.A. Fuhrman and D.G. Capone. 1990. Rapid ammonium cycling and concentration-dependent partitioning of ammonium and phosphate: implications for carbon transfer in planktonic communities. Limnology and Oceanography 35:424-433
  128. Butler, N., C.A. Suttle and W.E. Neill. 1989. Discrimination by zooplankton between algae of different nutritional status. Oecologia 78:368-372
  129. Suttle, C.A. and P.J. Harrison. 1988. Ammonium and phosphate uptake rates, N:P supply ratios, and evidence for N and P limitation in some oligotrophic freshwater lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 33:186-202
  130. Suttle, C.A. and P.J. Harrison. 1988. Rapid ammonium uptake by freshwater phytoplankton. Journal of Phycology 24:13-16
  131. Suttle, C.A. and P.J. Harrison. 1988. Ammonium and phosphate uptake kinetics of size-fractionated phytoplankton from an oligotrophic freshwater lake. Journal of Plankton Research 10:133-149
  132. Suttle, C.A., J.G. Stockner, K.S. Shortreed and P.J. Harrison. 1988. Time-course of size-fractionated phosphate uptake: Are large cells better competitors for pulses of phosphate than smaller cells? Oecologia 74:571-576
  133. Suttle, C.A., J.G. Stockner and P.J. Harrison. 1987. Effects of nutrient pulses on community structure and cell size of a freshwater phytoplankton assemblage in culture. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44:1768-1774
  134. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan, W.D. Taylor and P.J. Harrison. 1986. Grazing of planktonic diatoms by microflagellates. Journal of Plankton Research 8:393-398
  135. Suttle, C.A. and P.J. Harrison. 1986. Phosphorus uptake rates of phytoplankton assemblages grown at different dilution rates in semi-continuous culture. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43:1474-1481
  136. Suttle, C.A., N.M. Price, P.J. Harrison and P.A. Thompson. 1986. Polymerization of silica in acidic solutions: A note of caution to phycologists. Journal of Phycology 22:234-237


(b) Conference Proceedings


  1. Suttle, C.A. 2003. Viral diversity and its implications for infection in the sea. pp. 73-75 in Ecology of Marine Viruses. CIESM Workshop Monographs no. 21, 94 pages, Monaco
  2. Suttle, C.A. 2002. Loss processes in regulating harmful algal blooms pp. 17-18 in Developments for a Canadian GEOHAB (Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms) Program: 2001 Workshop Report, J.L. Martin (ed.), Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2400
  3. Wilhelm, S.W. and C.A. Suttle.2000.Viruses as regulators of nutrient cycles in aquatic environments.Pp 551-556 in:Microbial Biosystems: New Frontiers; C.R. Bell, M. Brylinsky, P. Johnson-Green (eds); Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology, Halifax, NS, August 1998
  4. Suttle, C.A. 1996. Viruses as biological control agents for blooms of marine phytoplankton. pp. 71-76 in Proceedings of the Brown Tide Summit, 20-21 October 1995, New York Sea Grant Institute
  5. Stockwell, D.A., T.E. Whitledge, E.J. Buskey, H. DeYoe, K.C. Dunton, G.J. Holt, S.A. Holt, P.A. Montagna and C.A. Suttle. 1996. Texas coastal lagoons and a persistent brown tide. pp. 81-85 in Proceedings of the Brown Tide Summit, 20-21 October 1995, New York Sea Grant Institute
  6. Suttle, C.A., F. Chen and A.M. Chan. 1992. Marine viruses: Decay rates, diversity and ecological implications. pp. 153-163 in International Marine Biotechnology Conference "IMBC-91": Short Communications of the Invited Lectures, C.C. Nash II (ed.), Developments in Microbiology Series, W. Brown Co., Dubuque


(c) Other


  1. Suttle, C.A. and A.M. Chan. 2001. Genus Prymnesiovirus (Phycodnaviridae) in The Springer Index of Viruses, C.A. Tidona and G. Darai (eds), Springer-Verlag, NY, 1511 pp
  2. Suttle, C.A. 2001. Genus Prasinovirus (Phycodnaviridae) in The Springer Index of Viruses, C.A. Tidona and G. Darai (eds) Springer-Verlag, NY, 1511 pp
  3. Suttle, Curtis A 1999 Cyanophages. In: Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. London: Nature Publishing Group. [doi:10.1038/npg.els.0000775]




(a) Journals


  1. Deeg, C.M., C.-E.T. Chow and C.A. Suttle. 2017. The kinetoplastid-infecting Bodo saltans virus (BsV), a window into the most abundant giant viruses in the sea. bioRxiv doi:, 6 November 2017 (40 pages)
  2. Shelford, E.J. and C.A. Suttle. 2017. Virus mediated transfer of nitrogen from heterotrophic bacteria to phytoplankton. Biogeosciences Discussion, 18 July 2017 (33 pages)
  3. Suttle, C.A. 2017. From Farm to Sea: A Tribute to Paul J. Harrison. Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 26(2): 58-59, doi: 10.1002/lob.10170
  4. Suttle, C.A. 2016. Viral diversity on the global stage. Nature Microbiology doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.205 (2 pages)
  5. Vierros, M., C.A. Suttle, H. Harden-Davies and G. Burton. 2016. Who owns the ocean? Policy issues surrounding marine genetic resources. Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 25(2), 29-35, doi:10.1002/lob.10108
  6. Labonté, J.M. and C.A. Suttle. 2015. Corrigendum: gokushoviruses and biogeographic separation in the sea. Frontiers in Microbiology 4:404. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00114
  7. White, R.A. III and C.A. Suttle. 2013. The draft genome of Sphingomonas paucimobilis strain HER1398 (Proteobacteria), host to the giant PAU phage, indicates that it is a member of the genus Sphingobacterium (Bacteroidetes). Genome Announcements 1(4):e00598-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00598-13.
  8. White, R.A. III, C.J. Grassa and C.A. Suttle. 2013. Draft Genome Sequence of an Exiguobacterium Strain RW-2 with wide thermal, salinity, and pH tolerance, isolated from modern microbialites. Genome Announcements 1(4):e00597-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00597-13.
  9. White, R.A. III, C.J. Grassa and C.A. Suttle. 2013. The first draft genome from the genus Agrococcus isolated from modern microbialites. Genome Announcements 1(4):e00391-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00391-13.
  10. Suttle, C. 2005.
  11. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan, M.T. Cottrell. 1991. Virus ecology - reply. Nature 351:612-613


(b) Other


Book Reviews

  1. Suttle, C.A. 2000. Molecular approaches to the study of the ocean. K.E. Cooksey, (ed). Chapman and Hall, 1998, Limnology and Oceanography 45:1677
  2. Suttle, C.A. 1993. Primary productivity and biogeochemical cycles in the sea. P.G. Falkowski and A.D. Woodhead (eds.), Plenum Press. Limnology and Oceanography 38:1588
  3. Suttle, C.A. 1988. Ecology of microbial communities. Symposium 41 of the Society for General Microbiology. M. Fletcher, T.R.G. Gray and J.G. Jones (eds)., Cambridge University Press. Quarterly Review of Biology 63:91


Technical Reports

  1. Short, S.M. and Suttle, C.A. 2000. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of natural virus samples on the DCodeä system. BioRad Technical Note 2550. 2 pp.
  2. Perrin, C.J. and C.A. Suttle. 1986. Nutrient manipulation and benthic algal growth in tributaries of the Flathead River, B.C.: An evaluation of recent data and recommendations for experiments. Prepared under contract for Env. Canada, Water Quality. 47 pp.



  1. Wilhelm, S.W., M.G. Weinbauer and C.A. Suttle. (eds.) 2010. Manual of Aquatic Viral Ecology, p. 1-201, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. doi:10.4319/mave.2010.978-0-9845591-0-7.




  1. Culley, A.I., , and C.A. Suttle. 2011. Taxonomic Structure of the Family Marnaviridae. p. 850-854 in Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses, A.M.Q. King, M.J. Adams, E.B. Carstens, and E.J. Lefkowitz (eds.) Elsevier
  2. Wilson, W.H., J.L. Van Etten, D.C. Schroeder, K. Nagasaki, C. Brussaard, G. Bratbak, and C. Suttle. 2011. Taxonomic Structure of the Family Phycodnaviridae. p. 249-262 in Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses, A.M.Q. King, M.J. Adams, E.B. Carstens, and E.J. Lefkowitz (eds.) Elsevier
  3. Lim, D.S.S., A.L. Brady, A.F. Abercromby, D.T. Andersen, M. Andersen, R.R. Arnold, J.S. Bird, H.R. Bohm, L. Booth, S.L. Cady, Z. Cardman, A.M. Chan, O. Chan, C. Chénard, B.R. Cowie, A. Davila, M.C. Deans, W. Dearing, M. Delaney, M. Downs, T. Fong, A. Forrest, M.L. Gernhardt, J.R. Gutsche, C. Hadfield, A. Hamilton, I. Hawes, J. Hansen, J. Heaton, Y. Imam, B.L. Laval, D. Lees, L. Leoni, C. Looper, S. Love, M.M. Marinova, D. McCombs, C.P. McKay, B. Mireau, G. Mullins, S.H. Nebel, P. Nuytten, R. Pendery, W. Pike, S.B. Pointing, J. Pollack, N. Raineault, M. Reay, D. Reid, T. Sallstedt, D. Schulze-Makuch, M. Seibert, R. Shepard, G.F. Slater, J. Stonehouse, D.Y.Sumner, C.A. Suttle, A. Trembanis, C. Turse, M. Wilhelm, N. Wilkinson, D. Williams, D.M. Winget, C. Winter. 2011. A Historical Overview of the Pavilion Lake Research Project – Analog Science and Exploration in an Underwater Environment. Chapter 7 in Analogs for Planetary Exploration
  4. Suttle, C.A. and J.A. Fuhrman. 2010. Enumeration of virus particles in aquatic or sediment samples by epifluorescence microscopy, p. 145-153 in Manual of Aquatic Viral Ecology,, S.W. Wilhelm, M.G. Weinbauer, and C.A. Suttle (eds), ASLO.
  5. Culley, A. I., C. A. Suttle, and G. F. Steward. 2010. Characterization of the diversity of marine RNA viruses, p. 193-201 in Manual of Aquatic Viral Ecology,, Wilhelm, S.W., M.G. Weinbauer, and C.A. Suttle, (eds) ASLO.
  6. Ortmann, A.C. and C.A. Suttle. 2009. Determination of virus abundance by epifluorescence microscopy, Chapter 10 in Bacteriophages, Methods and Protocols, Vol 1: Isolation, Characterization, and Interactions, Clokie, M.R.J. and Kropinski, A.M. (eds.),  p. 87-96, Humana Press
  7. Pausz, C., J.L. Clasen and C.A. Suttle. 2009. Isolation independent methods of characterizing phage communities 1: Strain typing using fingerprinting methods, Chapter 15 in Bacteriophages, Methods and Protocols, Vol 2: Molecular and Applied Aspects, Clokie, M.R.J. and Kropinski, A.M. (eds.), pp 255-278, Humana Press
  8. Lang, A.S. and C.A. Suttle. 2008. Marnaviruses. Encyclopedia of Virology (B.W.J. Mahy and M.H.V. Van Regenmortel, eds.), pp. 280-285, Oxford: Elsevier
  9. Vincent, W.F., C. Pedrós-Alió, C.A. Suttle, et al. 2008. Microbial communities and carbon fluxes. In: On Thin Ice: A Synthesis of the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES). L. Fortier, D. Barber & J. Michaud (ed.). pp. 85-89, Aboriginal Issue Press, Winnipeg, Manitoba
  10. Culley, A.I. and C.A. Suttle 2007. Community Structure: Viruses, Chapter 36 in Manual of Environmental Microbiology, C.J. Hurst, R.L Crawford, J.L. Garland, D.A. Lipson, A.L. Mills and L.D. Stezenbach (eds.), ASM Press, Wash DC
  11. Culley, A.I., , and C.A. Suttle. 2005. Taxonomic Structure of the Family Marnaviridae. In "Virus Taxonomy: Eighth Report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses" C.M. Fauquet, M.A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger, and L.A. Ball (eds.) Elsevier
  12. Suttle, C.A. 2002. Community Structure: Viruses, Chapter 32 (pp. 364-370) in Manual of Environmental Microbiology, C.J. Hurst, G.R. Knudson, M.J. McInerney, L.D. Stezenbach and M.V. Walter (eds.), ASM Press, Wash DC
  13. Suttle, C.A. 2000. Cyanophages and their role in the ecology of cyanobacteria. Chapter 20 (pp. 563-589 in The Ecology of Cyanobacteria: Their Diversity in Time and Space, B.A. Whitton and M. Potts (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publ, Boston
  14. Suttle, C.A. 2000. The ecological, evolutionary and geochemical consequences of viral infection of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. Chapter 6 (pp. 248-296) in Viral Ecology, C.J. Hurst (ed.), Academic Press, London, 639 pp.
  15. Suttle, C.A. 1997. Community Structure: Viruses. Chapter 28 (pp. 272-277) in Manual of Environmental Microbiology, C.J. Hurst, G.R. Knudson, M.J. McInerney, L.D. Stezenbach and M.V. Walter (eds.), ASM Press, Wash DC
  16. Suttle, C.A. 1993. Enumeration and isolation of viruses. Chapter 15 (pp. 121-134) in Current Methods in Aquatic Microbial Ecology, P.F. Kemp, B.F. Sherr, E.F. Sherr and J.J. Cole (eds.), Lewis Publ., Boca Raton
  17. Suttle, C.A., A.M. Chan, F. Chen and D.R. Garza. 1993. Cyanophages and sunlight: A paradox. pp. 303-307 in Trends in Microbial Ecology, R. Guerrero and C. Pedros-Alio (eds.), Span. Society Microbiology, Barcelona.